Newman’s The Idea of a University

Newman’s The Idea of a University advocates his ideas of university education seeking to guard against obscureantism in education. It deals with the basic principles concerning the site of the university, the aim of university education, the qualifications of the university teachers, and the ideals of liberal education. Newman also defines knowledge and differentiates between mere learning and knowledge.

The basic themes of Newman’s approach to present the idea of a university are well known:

• Knowledge is an end in itself, to be pursued for its own sake and not for some utilitarian value.

• The university is, first and foremost, a community of scholars, teachers and students devoted to the pursuit of truth.

• The core of the curriculum is the humanities which represent the highest attainment of cultivated minds.

From a number of alternative formulations of the same idea given by Newman, we have selected his following statement to define the university. The University, Newman says,

“… is the place to which a thousand schools make contributions; in which the intellect may safely range and speculate, sure to find its equal in some antagonist activity, and its judge in the tribunal of truth. It is a place where inquiry is pushed forward and discoveries verified and perfected, and rashness rendered innocuous, and error exposed, by the collision of mind with mind, and knowledge with knowledge.”

Newman does not define university in a narrow sense. Education in a university is not specific but general. “a University is not a birthplace of poets or of immortal authors, of founder of schools, leaders of colonies or conquerors of nations.” A university provides opportunity to acquire knowledge of different branches. In a university, students, prffessors and experts of varied discilpines assemble together and exchange their views, and thus acquire ‘knowledge’.

Knowledge which is a pursuit of university is, according to Newman, a unified whole. It consists of all branches of Knowledge, as Newman says,

“I have said that all branches of knowledge are connected together, because the subject-matter of knowledge is intimately united in itself, as being the acts and the work of the Creator.” (v) However, Newman differentiates between knowledge and mere learning. A single branch of knowledge is a mere learning. Thus, “all Knowledge is a whole and the separate Sciences parts of one”. Knowledge can be compared to tree with a number of branches. Different branches of knowledge are of equal importance, “They complete, correct, balance each other.”

The university education is “Liberal”. Newman says that “the end of University Education,…[is]… the Liberal or Philosophical Knowledge… which…has a very tangible, real, and sufficient end, though the end cannot be divided from that knowledge itself.”

There are two methods of Education-philosophical and mechanical. Mechanical education gives preference to instruction, and aims at immediate outcome of the process. Its scope is narrow.

On the contrary, Philosophical education, which is much broader, denotes liberal education which Newman advocates for. It is not characteresid by physical instruction rather by the exercise of reason, mind and inner faculty, by the cultivation of intellect. Thus by liberal education Newman means the ethical sense or education or the moral vision needed for a person’s private, social, national and intellectual life. The function of university education, Newman points out, is to produce a group of people who are literate and cultured, to produce gentlemen who are full of common sense and who can master any situation. Newman’s notions about University Education or Liberal Education are anti-utilitarian. His approach is fundamentally against the Utilitarian view that education or anything must have a a sort of ‘utility’ or usefulness in pragmatic value that is it must have market value. Thus by the term Knowledge, Newman, in an anti-utiliterian way, means something abstrract, something intangible, something intellectul. As Newman says,

” When I speak of knowlwdge, I mean something intellectual, something which grasps what it perceives through senses;…”

However, Newman does not altogether deny the necessity of mechanical education. He says,

“Let me not to deny the necessity, or to decry the benefit, of such attention to what is particular and pratical, as belongs to the useful and mechanical arts;” In presenting the liberal education, Newman argues that religion and science can not come into conflict, unless they are misrepresented or misunderstood. The aim of liberal education is to make a gentleman, not a Christian as Mill says, “Liberal education makes not the Christian, not the Catholic, but the gentleman. ” However, a Christian would be so much better than if he was gentleman also, because all the fields of human investigation are to be unified by the organizing concepts of theology, which is a science of its own kind.

The university teacher, according to Newman, should be “eloquent, and is a missionary and a preacher” who will display ” his science in its most complete and most winning form”, and who will have “the zeal of enthusiasm” lighting up love in the “breasts of his hearers”. If we observe the background of Newman’s presenting the essay, we see that the word “Idea” has been used in the sense of “ideal”. The model which he urged on his Dublin audience, seeking their support, particularly financial, for the creation of a new Catholic university in Dublin, was that of the unreformed Oxford in which he had spent his formative years. Actually, one may claim, his was a Platonic ideal, divorced from practice.

John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a Roman Catholic priest and Cardinal who converted to Roman Catholicism from Anglicanism. Therefore, it was no doubt that theology was at the core of his thinking and writing: the study of theology gets place at the core of his university curriculum. Newman’s vast bulk of theological writing is studied today by only the most esoteric of scholars. However, his great work, The Idea of a University, has stood the test of time.

Now in order to conclude the essay we will mention two contrasting quotes. Samuel Johnson once said:

“A writer is judged by his worst work when he is alive and by his best work when he is dead.”

In contrast, Shakespeare had Mark Anthony say:

“The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones.”

Newman is lucky that, in his case, it was Johnson who proved to be right, because after his death, even nowadays, The Idea of a University is being regarded as a plea for liberal education.

Safely Save for Your Child’s University Studies Using An Education IRA!

This investment retirement account (IRA) is useful to you as an investor to understand because it may be a good way for you to save for your kid’s education AND save on taxes. These plans are now called Coverdell Education Savings Accounts in honor of the late U.S. Sen. Paul Coverdell. Individuals can make annual contributions of up to $2,000 per child into an account that’s exclusively for helping to pay higher education costs. The money contributed to a Coverdell account doesn’t count against the $3,000 ($3,500 if 50 and older) annual total individuals may contribute to their combined personal individual IRAs.

The earnings and withdrawals from a Coverdell account are tax-free, but you can’t deduct the contributions from your income tax because the account is for the benefit of the child, not the contributor. This is great for parents who are good savers and investors who want to make an annual tax-saving contribution that they can invest in the stock market toward the education of a studious and responsible child. In addition, if your child received a Coverdell ESA distribution, you now can also claim Hope Scholarship or Lifetime Learning credits. Just make sure you don’t use Coverdell money to pay for the same expenses you use to claim an education credit.

The beneficiary (your child) of the education IRA must withdraw the funds by age 30 if they don’t go to college and pay taxes and penalties on it. However, the account can be transferred to a sibling or the beneficiary’s child if they don’t pursue a higher academic degree or use it all.

Once you have the account open you can use the stock market to help finance your child’s education selling the stock at a high price after you have bought it at a low price using techniques such as I teach.

The Cost Of A Worthless Degree From California State University Just Got More Costly

Inflation has been all but non-existent during the Obama Years, yet you wouldn’t know that looking at the increase of College/University Tuition at the State Level, especially in California. Students are told in High School that college is mandatory to have a fruitful life and live in the elusive middle class, and are told to go into debt to get that degree (more like economic enslavement) with no guarantee. Most of the college professors and administrators are in the 2%, no not the 1% but well ahead of what their students should ever expect to get to. Let’s talk, because the academic bubble is still building and its about to pop – things have gotten way out of hand.

There was a rather troubling segment on ABC News Affiliate in Los Angeles (Eyewitness News 7) recently titled: “CSU Trustees Vote to Raise Tuition by 5% Amid Protest From Students” on March 22, 2017.

First, I’d like to point out that the education hasn’t gotten any better at the California State University System, by all measures and accounts it has gotten worse. Degreed Students are valued less in the marketplace, as employers realize their education isn’t as good, and that those degrees don’t predict the students will be productive employees or even have a clue as to what they are doing.

Most professors, especially tenured professors are not teaching in the classroom much, as they spend lots of time on sabbaticals, and have grad students lecturing now. The increased costs of the university has to do with legacy costs (Pensions) and increase healthcare Cadillac Style Health Care Programs for staff and professors. Although their pension fund is not as bad as the University of California System which highly underfunded, it isn’t breaking any records either – this Trump Bump in the stock market recently has saved their asses (temporarily) if you’d like to know the true skinny on that.

It’s time to face facts – The CSU system (California State University) is broken, academia is broken close the damn universities who give degrees in Gender Studies, Sustainability, Ethnic Equality, LBGT Studies – those kids aren’t going to get work to ever pay off those student loans – academia is on drugs by any rational observable standard – worthless – totally worthless surviving off of Federal Research Grants and Taxpayers and extortion tuition, subsidies and socialist agendas. Some at our think tank online, to put it quite bluntly, say; “To hell with all of it, it’s just BS now,” and I believe these think tank members are absolutely correct.

Why the 5% increase in tuition when enrollment is at an all-time high? Why the increase in tuition without increased benefits? The degrees aren’t worth any more than they were last year, in fact they are worth less now. The California State University System is out-of-control just like the University of California System is, and academia across the country is with student loan debt hovering at 1.4 Trillion Dollars, 45% of those loans have never made a single payment or are 90-days overdue. The academic industrial complex is a giant bubble about to burst, and what does the CSU system do? Raise tuition? Oh, well that’s just going to help a lot lot… NOT!

Why Earn An Online University Degree?

Information technology has made it easy for students to earn online college degrees such as Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA), Engineering, Computers, Law, Medical and Bachelor of Divinity. It is much easier for the colleges to organize classes online. Students can ask questions, give answers and take part in various education forums through online chatting. This way of teaching is becoming popular day by day. A large number of students are in favor of earning an online university degree. Internet education provides them an opportunity to save their time and money.

What is online university degree?

The degree, which is earned by pursuing a course through internet, is called an online university degree. With the help of information technology, universities are offering thousands of online degree courses. There is no limit to students earning a university degree through internet at a time.

Benefits of an online university degree

Students can pursue bachelor, associate or master courses at their own pace. There is no time limit to complete an online course. In a traditional university you can become a graduate in four years. Deserving students can even complete their graduation in less than two years by pursuing a degree course through internet.

Online universities are very liberal in enrolling students in various studies. Even with low GPA, students can get enrolled in their aspired courses.

Working persons and businessmen can easily become a graduate by enrolling themselves in universities, which are available on internet. As a working person, you need not to take long leaves from work for earning an online degree.

A degree can bring in promotion or increment for working people. Jobseekers can easily get high profile jobs such as Chief Executive Officer in a company.

Colleges, which use information technology in teaching students, are known for offering most cost effective bachelor courses. The fees structure of one university differs from another. Students can search on internet for an online course, which suits to their financial condition best.

Why accreditation is required for online university degrees?

To understand why accreditation is required, one should know what accreditation is. It is provided by the United States Department of Education. Universities have to follow nationally recognized standards in teaching students to get accreditation. You will be surprised to know that there are numerous non-accredited online universities. The degrees awarded by theses universities are not recognized by employers. Students, who earn degrees from non-accredited schools, not only waste their money but time too. Once you decide to earn an online university degree, please check with the Department of Education whether the online university is accredited or not.

How to get an online university degree?

Enrollment forms for online universities are available on internet. You can log on to find out popular courses. It is advisable to first study the curriculum of the course, which you want to pursue. Students are enrolled by universities in online courses throughout the year. In a traditional university, students have to wait for the semester end for enrollment.

I am going to write next article on the job opportunities of an online degree. You will come to know about the lucrative jobs after earning degrees in various studies.

How to Get Financial Aid for Your Online Education?

Time has changed and over the years education is no more restricted to pen, paper, classrooms, blackboards etc. Today when time is deemed to be more crucial than money and people in even in remote corners of the world crave to acquire education and its benefits, online education has definitely come up as a desired boon.

Online education is education via the medium of Internet that can be gained synchronously or asynchronously. At present online education is far superior from the conventional mode of learning (i.e. going to universities, attending classes and so forth) in many ways. Online education is not just a means to make judicious use of time but it is also acquiring the best possible degree in academics anytime anywhere.

Though merits of online education outweigh the classroom education in many respects, its greatest drawback is its cost. Online education is significantly expensive in comparison to usual university education. This is precisely the reason that every individual cannot dream of getting an online degree.

But with a surge in enticement for online education some universities imparting it have devised several ways to financially assist the aspirants. The foremost and ideal step in this direction is education loans and giving scholarships.

Whereas loan or arranging finance for online education is concerned the foremost step is to fill up your FASFA i.e. Free Application for Federal Student Aid. The FASFA is an application published by the Department of Education. This application gives the aspirant an idea of the kind of funding he or she is eligible for. Once the application form is properly filled and sent, wait for the confirmation. Usually receiving a confirmation letter is a matter of one or two days. The confirmation letter will brief you about the kind and number of programs you meant for you. This process is quite simple and easy to follow.

After acquiring the confirmation letter, contact the Financial Aid office of the desired college/s. The financial aid officer there will explain you the various types of financial aid packages available that vary from work-study programs to government aid. He will lend you the requisite forms for different colleges. Finally it is at your discretion which college to opt for though the officer will definitely guide you in your selection.

Once the loan application is completed, it will be sent to the school for the process of verification and processing. Usually banks do not fund the students directly but via the concerned institution. The bank sends the money at the commencement of the session.

This is helpful to both the student and the institution.

Apart from loans there are scholarship programs such as the Hope Scholarship Tax Credit that offers a maximum 100% on the first $1000 and 50% on the second $1000 spent for educational purposes. Similarly the Lifetime Learning Tax Credit, the Higher Education Tuition and Fees Deduction are other means to save money on your online educational expenses.